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Sunday, January 7

  1. page Xue yu qiu fa ji—Yi ge Han ren lama de kou shu shi edited ... Conclusion Xing Suzhi’s oral history is a very important source that can help its readers rev…
    ...
    Conclusion
    Xing Suzhi’s oral history is a very important source that can help its readers revisit Tibet and China in the early twentieth century from a perspective of a Chinese lama. As a Chinese monk who witnessed the reformation of the Buddhist education in China, he had chances to experience the interactions between Chinese and Tibetan Buddhism in the early twentieth century. Moreover, as a Chinese lama pursuing Dharma in Tibet, he was able to closely observe the situations of the government, the monasteries, and the local societies of Tibet. Additionally, his connections with the GMD government also provide us some clues about the activities of the Chinese nationalists in Tibet during the 1930s and the 1940s.
    ...
    another article. (Final revisions on October 25, 2016)
    Works Cited
    Academia Historica. The Archives of Chiang Kai-shek.
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  2. page Xue yu qiu fa ji—Yi ge Han ren lama de kou shu shi edited ... Xing, Suzhi (aka. Luosang zhenzhu = Lobsang Tsondru). Xue yu qiu fa ji: Yi ge Han ren lama de …
    ...
    Xing, Suzhi (aka. Luosang zhenzhu = Lobsang Tsondru). Xue yu qiu fa ji: Yi ge Han ren lama de kou shu shi (Searching Dharma in the Snow Region: An Oral History of a Chinese Lama). Taipei: Sanlian Shu dian, 2010.
    Appendix
    {https://scontent-iad3-1.xx.fbcdn.net/v/t31.0-8/17388852_1285996598149149_5499655426590874942_o.jpg?oh=b39bfc97fea198423afa9bb1b61e0259&oe=59256998}
    {https://scontent-iad3-1.xx.fbcdn.net/v/t31.0-8/s720x720/17388985_1285998028149006_696680052406467652_o.jpg?oh=2959d5f34fd4417b16adf6f649383f8c&oe=5924F133}
    {1.png}
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    The proof of Lobsang Tsondru (Xing Suzhi) as a real “Chinese lama” for passing through Chamdo. This proof was issued by Surkhang Wangchen Delek (aka. Wang Qirong in Chinese) in 1939. [7]
    Lobsang Tsondru (the left in the second row), Surkhang Wangchen Delek (the middle in the first row), and Ngapo Ngawang Jigme (the left in the first row) in a party in 1939. [8]
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Tuesday, December 26

  1. page Autobiography, Memoirs, or Reports of Life in Tibet edited ... Bhuti, Lhamo, and Sandy L. Melnyk. 2015. Journey of the spirit: a Tibetan woman's story. Denma…
    ...
    Bhuti, Lhamo, and Sandy L. Melnyk. 2015. Journey of the spirit: a Tibetan woman's story. Denman Island, British Columbia : Sandy L. Melnyk, 2015.
    Gyalo Thondup and Anne F. Thurston. The Noodle Maker of Kalimpong. New York: Public Affairs, 2015.
    Sofia Riva : Keyzom,Keyzom, Tsering, and
    Sadhutshang, Rinchen. 2016. //A life unforeseen: a memoir of service to Tibet//. Somerville, MA : Wisdom Publications, Inc., 2016.
    Tenzin, Pam D. 2016. My name is Tenzin, I am not Chinese: an exile Tibetan lad's college memoirs in India. Chennai: Notion Press, 2016.
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    9:08 pm
  2. page Autobiography, Memoirs, or Reports of Life in Tibet edited ... Kathog Situ Chokyi Gyatso. Togden Shakya Shri: The Life and Liberation of a Tibetan Yogin. Tra…
    ...
    Kathog Situ Chokyi Gyatso. Togden Shakya Shri: The Life and Liberation of a Tibetan Yogin. Trans. Elio Guarisco. (Italy: Shangshung Edizioni) 2009.
    Tsodi Bongsar. 2009. Nangchen Sremo: the story of Sremo Tsodi Bongsar from Nangchen, and a brief recent history of the Bongsar family. Kathmandu: Vajra Publications.
    ...
    Rebgong painter. SAM
    Tsering Woeser. Mémoire Interdite: Témoignages sur la Révolution culturelle au Tibet [Forbidden Memory: Testimony on the Cultural Revolution in Tibet], éd. Bleu de Chine, trad. Li Zhang & Bernard Bourrit. 2010.
    Brauen, Yangzom. 2011. Across Many Mountains: A Tibetan Family's Epic Journey from Oppression to Freedom. New York: St. Martin's Press.
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    9:06 pm
  3. page one girl's survival story edited ... Book Review by Sofia Riva Abstract ... recounted through conversation conversation …
    ...
    Book Review by Sofia Riva
    Abstract
    ...
    recounted through
    conversation

    conversation
    sessions with
    ...
    subject a heartrendingheart-rending and profoundly
    Summary
    My Journey to Freedom opens with a quote from Buddha: “No one saves us but ourselves. No one can and no one may. We ourselves must walk the path.” On the facing page is a portrait of the 14th Dalai Lama. Thus, the opening two pages frame the following account, at first glance more a refugee’s story than a story of a pilgrim, in the distinct framework of the Tibetan Buddhist tradition. In Chapter One, Tsering introduces us to the Chinese-Tibetan conflict, again placing the focus on the Chinese government’s intrusion into religious life in Tibet. “Because China’s Communist ideology regards Tibetan culture with disgust,” writes Tsering “it is doing everything in its power to eradicate it. Though the Chinese make strong efforts to hide their evils from the world, they have destroyed thousands of Tibetan monasteries and nunneries, burned religious scripts and imprisoned, tortured, and even killed religious leaders and dissidents.” It is against this background that Tsering frames her family’s decision to attempt to smuggle her out of Tibet at age 12 along with another young girl from their village.
    ...
    My Journey to Freedom is no doubt an inspirational tale, and fortunately one with a happy ending. Tsering recounts events so matter-of-factly, and, it must be said, with the self-admitted naiveté of a 12-year-old girl, that it is easy to forget the backdrop of immense danger of both discovery by the authorities and potential exploitation by the strangers to whom the girls entrusted their lives throughout the journey. Looking back at the story, it’s amazing that no terrible twist of events occurred, and the girls made it relatively unscathed over numerous borders to their destination of Dharamsala; no less amazing is the great optimism and gratitude with which Tsering confronts her new life in the United States. During her time in high school, despite being faced with the challenges of an immense cultural and linguistic shift, the only regret Tsering mentions is not being able to attend the prom, as she did not make any friends in her senior class. It is important to note, however, that this tale might be self censored by Tsering, considering the story told is through the lens of a man she did not know very well, thus more personal or traumatic aspect of the journey could very well have been left out.
    It is unclear how much editing power or input the co-author, Sanford S. Zevon, had in Tsering’s story. In his forward, Zevon describes how he joined the Conversation Partners program at Westchester Community College, a program intended to help non-native English speaking students improve their language skills. It was within this context that Zevon met Tsering, and was told her story: “After a few weeks of listening in awe to details of her escape from Tibet” he writes, “...I suggested that she write down what she had told me as a means of helping her with her English writing. Reading her account of the extraordinary events she went through prompted me to ask her if she would be interested in writing a book, and obviously the answer was yes.” This suggests that these are, actually, Tsering’s own words. However, the attribution on the book cover makes this unclear. “One Girl’s Survival Story” it reads, “by Tsering Keyzom as told to Sanford S. Zevon.” The murky authorship, though typical of many Tibetan biographies, is an interesting lens through which to examine the way the story is presented. The book is written in first person, and is printed in a childish font, which though perhaps meant to invoke Tsering’s youth during these events, seems to belittle the contents of the story and be unfitting for the words of such an accomplished and inspirational woman. A positive note is added to the book’s presentation, on the other hand, by the pictures woven throughout the text of Tsering’s family in Amdo; she and Rinchen at the Upper Tibetan Village School; and her family reunited in the United States. This brings the story to life, putting a face to the narration. The final photograph, a graduation portrait of Tsering from Westchester Community College, is an uplifting final glimpse of the author. All in all, My Journey to Freedom is very much a worthy and inspirational read, combining the harsh realities of the Chinese occupation and oppression of Buddhism in Tibet, with the unfailing optimism and heart-warming success of Tsering Keyzom.

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  4. page one girl's survival story edited My Journey to Freedom Book Review by Sofia Riva Abstract My Journey to Freedom is the autobiog…
    My Journey to Freedom
    Book Review by Sofia Riva
    Abstract
    My Journey to Freedom is the autobiography of Tsering Keyzom. Her story, recounted through
    conversation sessions with Dr. Sanford S. Zevon at a local community college, begins in Amdo, a nomadic village in Tibet where she lives with her family, and ends in Westchester, New York by way of Kathmandu, New Dehli and Dharamsala. The language is simple and unassuming, the subject a heartrending and profoundly inspirational journey from the oppression of Chinese occupied Tibet toward the possibility of a traditional Tibetan education and the liberty to practice her Buddhist religion. Between text and photographs, My Journey to Freedom plunges you into the mentality of a young Tibetan girl, and, through a story of physical toil, separation and adjustment to a new country and culture, brings to light the reality of an occupied Tibet, and the hardships families must endure to preserve their religion and way of life.
    Summary
    My Journey to Freedom opens with a quote from Buddha: “No one saves us but ourselves. No one can and no one may. We ourselves must walk the path.” On the facing page is a portrait of the 14th Dalai Lama. Thus, the opening two pages frame the following account, at first glance more a refugee’s story than a story of a pilgrim, in the distinct framework of the Tibetan Buddhist tradition. In Chapter One, Tsering introduces us to the Chinese-Tibetan conflict, again placing the focus on the Chinese government’s intrusion into religious life in Tibet. “Because China’s Communist ideology regards Tibetan culture with disgust,” writes Tsering “it is doing everything in its power to eradicate it. Though the Chinese make strong efforts to hide their evils from the world, they have destroyed thousands of Tibetan monasteries and nunneries, burned religious scripts and imprisoned, tortured, and even killed religious leaders and dissidents.” It is against this background that Tsering frames her family’s decision to attempt to smuggle her out of Tibet at age 12 along with another young girl from their village.
    Tsering grew up in a village of only 70 families in the county of Amdo, a region in the north east of Tibet. She describes her life there, leading a nomadic existence throughout most of the year, changing the location of the tent she shared with her parents and four siblings whenever the family’s yak herd needed fresh pasture, and moving into a small permanent house near her grandmother in the village during the winter. Her parents always had high hopes for their children’s education, though it seems to be implied that they never received any themselves: they sent their oldest son away to a Chinese school which, though certainly not ideal, was the best kind of education available in that region. When Tsering was eight, her parents attempted to send her to a Tibetan school in Lhasa; however, she soon became distraught at the idea of separation from her family and was sent home. Thus, when she was 12, her parents informed her of the plan they had formulated to sneak her out of Tibet to Dharamsala, India, where the exiled Dalai Lama had set up a school for Tibetan children in a Tibetan refugee camp, where they could be educated in Tibetan culture and the Buddhist religion.
    Keyzom was informed that she would be undertaking the journey along with Rinchen, another young girl from her village who was to be sent to India. The plan involved numerous family members of both girls: Tsering’s Uncle Tashi, who lived in Lhasa, was recruited to find a driver willing to take the girls to Dham, a border town on the Tibet-Nepalese frontier. From there, the girls would be handed off to Rinchen’s cousins who would in turn find them help to cross the border to meet Rinchen’s half-brother, Labsalnd Choepa, who lived in Dehli, India. Unsurprisingly, the plan did not go off without a hitch. They made their way by jeep to Lhasa by way of Ngawa, where they spent the majority of their time gathering documentation to be able to continue their journey to Dham. They underwent increasingly careful scrutiny at the various Chinese checkpoints; aware of the outgoing stream of pilgrims and refugees, officials were wary of allowing people near the border. Finally, at the crossing point into Nepal, they were refused entry and their documents confiscated. The girls were then hidden from the police by Rinchen’s cousin in a carpet storage facility without windows, electricity or running water for 30 days, suffering from malnourishment. Finally, after family members’ repeated attempts to regain the girls’ documentation failed, arrangements were made to hire smugglers to take them across the border illegally.
    The girls were handed over to two young Nepalese boys to escort them across the Himalayas to Nepal. Traveling only by night, the girls followed the boys for some days, until they were handed off to another guide. Because of the language barrier, the girls were not able to communicate with their guides and had to blindly trust that they were escorting them in the right direction, and would not abandon them. They continued their journey, traveling in the dark, plagued by insects, leeches, and hiding from any other people they saw. Finally, they reached a place where they could see the lights of a Nepalese border town, and after crossing a river, met a woman who brought them to her house where she hid them in the overheated attic, safe from any potential raids by Nepalese police. They spent four days there before being disguised in Nepalese clothing and taken by two men on motorcycles to another house, a day’s drive away, where Rinchen’s brother picked them up.
    Rinchen’s brother took them first to Kathmandu, to visit a Buddhist shrine, and to a Tibetan refugee office to fill out documents to permit them to travel to India. Their travels to India were delayed by public turmoil caused by the massacre of the Nepalese royal family. However, after several months they managed to reach New Delhi, and from there drive to Dharamsala, the home-in-exile of the Dalai Lama. In Dharamsala, both Rinchen and Tsering were enrolled in the Upper Tibetan Children’s Village School, run by the sister of the Dalai Lama, where they studied for five years. For three years, Tsering heard nothing from her family, until in 2005 her father came to meet her in Delhi and informed her that he had found work in the United States, and was making plans to move the entire family to New York. After an arduous process to obtain documents, in 2007 the family departed for the United States, where they settled into a new home in Eastchester. Once in New York, despite the language barrier, Tsering was able to complete high school while working on the side at a Tibetan restaurant, and continue on to community college, fulfilling all of her parent’s dreams of continuing her education.
    Commentary
    My Journey to Freedom is no doubt an inspirational tale, and fortunately one with a happy ending. Tsering recounts events so matter-of-factly, and, it must be said, with the self-admitted naiveté of a 12-year-old girl, that it is easy to forget the backdrop of immense danger of both discovery by the authorities and potential exploitation by the strangers to whom the girls entrusted their lives throughout the journey. Looking back at the story, it’s amazing that no terrible twist of events occurred, and the girls made it relatively unscathed over numerous borders to their destination of Dharamsala; no less amazing is the great optimism and gratitude with which Tsering confronts her new life in the United States. During her time in high school, despite being faced with the challenges of an immense cultural and linguistic shift, the only regret Tsering mentions is not being able to attend the prom, as she did not make any friends in her senior class. It is important to note, however, that this tale might be self censored by Tsering, considering the story told is through the lens of a man she did not know very well, thus more personal or traumatic aspect of the journey could very well have been left out.
    It is unclear how much editing power or input the co-author, Sanford S. Zevon, had in Tsering’s story. In his forward, Zevon describes how he joined the Conversation Partners program at Westchester Community College, a program intended to help non-native English speaking students improve their language skills. It was within this context that Zevon met Tsering, and was told her story: “After a few weeks of listening in awe to details of her escape from Tibet” he writes, “...I suggested that she write down what she had told me as a means of helping her with her English writing. Reading her account of the extraordinary events she went through prompted me to ask her if she would be interested in writing a book, and obviously the answer was yes.” This suggests that these are, actually, Tsering’s own words. However, the attribution on the book cover makes this unclear. “One Girl’s Survival Story” it reads, “by Tsering Keyzom as told to Sanford S. Zevon.” The murky authorship, though typical of many Tibetan biographies, is an interesting lens through which to examine the way the story is presented. The book is written in first person, and is printed in a childish font, which though perhaps meant to invoke Tsering’s youth during these events, seems to belittle the contents of the story and be unfitting for the words of such an accomplished and inspirational woman. A positive note is added to the book’s presentation, on the other hand, by the pictures woven throughout the text of Tsering’s family in Amdo; she and Rinchen at the Upper Tibetan Village School; and her family reunited in the United States. This brings the story to life, putting a face to the narration. The final photograph, a graduation portrait of Tsering from Westchester Community College, is an uplifting final glimpse of the author. All in all, My Journey to Freedom is very much a worthy and inspirational read, combining the harsh realities of the Chinese occupation and oppression of Buddhism in Tibet, with the unfailing optimism and heart-warming success of Tsering Keyzom.

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    9:02 pm
  5. page Heavy Earth, Golden Sky—Tibetan Women Speak about Their Lives edited Write 4-5pp (1200-1500 words) ABSTRACT: By Sam Ritz Collected by C. Michelle Kleisath, Heavy Ea…
    Write 4-5pp (1200-1500 words)ABSTRACT:
    By Sam Ritz
    Collected by C. Michelle Kleisath, Heavy Earth, Golden Sky compiles ten autobiographical stories written by her Tibetan students at Quighai Normal University in Xining, China. The students all derive from the Tibetan Plateau (specifically, the Qinghai, Sichuan, Yunnan, and Gansu provinces) and were born from 1983-1986. Each of their stories captures a childhood lived contemporary Chinese occupied Tibet. There’s no single plot thread—each life-story is around ten to fifteen pages long—but a cohesive narrative still emerges from the reading of all the stories. All the women describe their childhoods in Chinese Tibet, linked by a common destiny to enter university to study English. Some grow up well off, but far more poor: there are none, truth be told, where the specter of economic struggle is not a central character. The authors write their stories in a straightforward manner with hints of mystical forces—a method that mirrors the classic mode of a Tibetan life story.
    Heavy Earth, Golden Sky collects ten separate autobiographical narratives from young women living in contemporary Tibet, under Chinese occupation. Each woman differs slightly in their respective geographic and economic circumstance—where they’re from, the means with which they grew up—yet are connected by their shared education. Every story presented in this collection shows a woman leaving her hometown to study English, that foreign (yet, increasingly, universal) tongue. This experience of leaving home is something most readers can relate to; initially this kinship is what binds us to keep on reading. However alien the culture and landscape of Tibet may seem, we too have hometowns to escape from, a promise we seek to fulfill.
    This universal theme of the text quickly subordinates to the precise struggle of its storytellers: being a young women in Tibet at the twilight of the 20th century. Taught English but raised in a state subsumed by the political and moral ends of post-Mao China, these women find themselves at an interesting juncture between their ambition and the conservative conditions of their homeland. Long subjugated by Tibetan culture, the late 20th century seems to give Tibetan women a chance—if of the slight variety—to assert themselves amidst the socio-political landmine of contemporary Tibet. The stories within the
    book reviewbeg the question: why are these women still attached to where they grew up? If their education offers an escape from many kinds of cultural subjugation, why do they return to their homeland? Why do they even respect it? We’re presented with their fascinating Catch 22—this desire to return home after trying with everything to leave—and wonder how much their cultural nurture informs their personal nature. In a world where this regional, religious culture becomes more peripheral to a globalized kind, this book asks how can we classify the struggle of these contemporary Tibetan women. Who were they? How was their upbringing? What will they go on to become?
    Being a set of collected short autobiographies,
    the book you selected,itself has no overarching plot. Still, a shared narrative of personal and post it here usingcultural identity emerges between the formatwomen. Each of the stories begins in a Tibetan woman’s childhood and concludes when they determine what to do with their education (typically learning English). The threads of the usual coming-of-age story are present—struggles with family, a new ambition for adulthood, attachment or frustration with the land, the people that they grew up with. Having said this, I find that the way each woman tells their story is in a specifically Tibetan way; utilizing the narrative devices commonly found in Tibetan Buddhist autobiographies. The stories of Dawa Drowla and Lhamatso, for instance, both hinge upon dream sequences, which, like those in Tibetan life-writing, expose the central concern of each of their life-stories. In Dawa Drowla’s dream, she is greeted by her long deceased, much beloved grandfather, who tells her to remember the Losar celebration, Tibetan New Year (15). Lhamataso’s dream has no deceased grandfather, but a kata that she wears (a Tibetan ceremonial scarf) while celebrating the childhood version of her village, one with ”clear clean glowing water” prior to its transformation into a hydroelectric dam (38). She too has this dream around Losar. It seems that both these women link the positive aspects of their upbringing to a uniquely Tibetan event.
    Each of these authors has these dreams crystallize to a specific conflict of this larger group of Tibetan women: reckoning with a traumatic event in their upbringing as it fits into their newfound success as a student. In her life-story, Drowla describes her connection to her father’s failed goldmine; when she was born, the goldmine collapsed. Her family lost their wealth and Drowla was forced to live with relatives. A gradual rise in education allows her to leave her hometown and attend university; yet, somehow, she finds herself back in the village where she grew
    up there (CCNMTL staffin by story’s end. The grandfather’s presence in the dream signals to the reader that Drowla has, in some aspects, reached an internal acceptance between herself and the trauma of her childhood. We gather a similar kind of resolution in the dream found in Lhamatso’s tale: by having herself recall the beauty of her childhood home—made concrete in her wearing of the kata—Lhamatso transforms the ugly circumstances of her childhood into something she can helptake pride in.
    Although not in the form of a dream, other life stories in this collection also use tropes from Tibetan culture to describe the challenging arcs of their subjects’ lives. A women named Samtsoye likens her struggle for education to that of a religious pilgrim; although born
    with wiki postings if you have any trouble). Please start your papera supportive family, she nonetheless clashes with the judgmental nature of her larger village community (22). Studying for a shot at escape is also a kind of harsh journey, with questionable returns. Another women, one paragraph (150 word) abstract givingGelsang Lhamu, describes how her mother, at a young age, told her how her “animal year” of the following information: whoTiger allegedly would bring her daughter awful karma (57). Lhamu’s story thus centers around how her understanding of her “birth year” would come to infect her feelings about her own self-worth and perception of her intelligence. Here we see how Tibetan culture equally damages and strengthens the bookspersonal identities of these women. For example, a recurring thread throughout the women’s stories is about,their sense of familial duty (a traditional part of Tibetan culture). Regardless of whether their parents support their education or not, these women still follow—or at least, take highly into consideration—the opinions and concerns of their elders. As we see in the main figure (includecontrasting role of parents in the upbringings of Samtsoye and Gelsang Lhamu, Tibetan spellingculture still impacts the way which these women interpret the course of personal names if you can find), when it took place (notetheir lives. While the time periods covered), where, what part(s)experience of Tibet ortheir lives derives from their ability and personality, how they experience life is still dictated by the world (again, includeculture in which they grew up in. In other words, these Tibetan spellings if given),women would’ve still attempted to go to school, regardless of what their family said or their culture implied. In each of their stories is described (contentsa universal sense of narrative) and whycuriosity.
    There is one more constant in
    the autobiography was written (i.e. ,motive[s] for tellinglife stories of all these women: the story).
    *To post, just click "edit", paste your review
    threat of cultural homogeneity upon the Tibetan way of life. Whether in the link,form of post-Mao Chinese oppression (think of the hydroelectric dam that destroyed Lhamatso’s hometown) or even in the form of studying English, these women often find themselves threatened by the possibility of forgetting where they came from. Regardless of the individual trauma that defined many of these women’s upbringing, they still write of cherishing of where they grew up, and click "save"many of the traditions, such as Losar, that come with it. None want to move on, in their effort to move forward. This is not their endorsement for the politely-described-as-conservative politics that long defined—continues to define—being a women in Tibet. What I found most often in these stories was an attempt to reconcile a rich cultural tradition with its most repressive qualities.
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